Accommodating existing schemas piaget

In the 1980s, David Rumelhart extended Minsky's ideas, creating an explicitly psychological theory of the mental representation of complex knowledge.

Roger Schank and Robert Abelson developed the idea of a script, which was known as a generic knowledge of sequences of actions.

When he was trying to create solutions for some of the difficulties he encountered he came across Bartlett's work and decided that if he was ever going to get machines to act like humans he needed them to use their stored knowledge to carry out processes.

To compensate for that he created what was known as the frame construct, which was a way to represent knowledge in machines.

Schemata can help in understanding the world and the rapidly changing environment.

People use schemata to organize current knowledge and provide a framework for future understanding.

People may also interpret the new information in a way that minimizes how much they must change their schemata.

Furthermore, the mere exposure effect—which requires consciousness of the stimuli—is far more effective than priming.

By presenting participants with information that was unfamiliar to their cultural backgrounds and expectations and then monitoring how they recalled these different items of information (stories, etc.), Bartlett was able to establish that individuals' existing schemata and stereotypes influence not only how they interpret "schema-foreign" new information but also how they recall the information over time.

With priming, a brief imperceptible stimulus temporarily provides enough activation to a schema so that it is used for subsequent ambiguous information.

Although this may suggest the possibility of subliminal messages, the effect of priming is so fleeting that it is difficult to detect outside laboratory conditions.

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